What is Southern Yellow Pine Lumber?
Southern Yellow Pine grows across the Southern United States, from East Texas to Virginia. It is a rare county that does not contain one of the four main species: shortleaf, longleaf, loblolly or slash. Lumber made from Southern Yellow Pine include all four species and is graded in accordance with the grading rules of the SPIB (Southern Pine Inspection Bureau).
Southern Yellow Pine is used for many applications due to the desirable inherent characteristics:
HIGH STRENGTH – Design values assigned for Southern Yellow Pine are among the highest for all softwoods.
SEASONING – Grade marked Southern Yellow Pine dimensional lumber (2″ and less in thickness) must be dried to a maximum moisture content of 19%.
NAIL HOLDING – The ability of Southern Yellow Pine to hold fasteners is among the highest of the softwoods.
DURABILITY – Southern Yellow Pine is highly resistant to wear; therefore, it is suitable for flooring, decks, patios, marinas, boardwalks and other high-traffic applications.
TREATABILITY – Southern Yellow Pine is also one of the easiest softwoods to pressure-treat with preservatives. As a result, treated Southern Yellow Pine is one of the largest segments of the Pine market.
QUALITY – Southern Yellow Pine lumber is produced to the highest standards, as contained in the SPIB grading rules.
Proper seasoning and storage helps provide optimial dimensional stability of lumber in service. Wood is composed of a series of organic cells that contain water and act similar to a sponge. As water is removed from the wood fiber, it shrinks; conversely, if submerged in water, it swells. The greatest shrinking and swelling occurs tangential to the growth rings, while half as much occurs radially to the growth rings, and very small amounts occur longitudinally.
What is Pressure Treated Lumber?
When most wood is exposed to the elements, excessive moisture, or contact with the ground, it will decay. Certain conditions are required for decay and insect attack to occur: moisture, a favorable temperature, oxygen, and a source of food (wood fiber). If any of these conditions is removed, infestation and decay will not occur.
Southern Yellow Pine is the most treatable of all softwood species. Its unique cellular structure permits deep, uniform penetration of preservatives rendering the wood useless as a food source for fungi, termites and micro-organisms. Some 85% of all pressure-treated wood is Southern Yellow Pine.
In addition, the use of treated Southern Yellow Pine products poses no measurable risk to humans, animals, plant or marine life.
Follow these simple tips when using pressure-treated Southern Yellow Pine:
- Wear eye protection and a dust mask when sawing or machining treated wood.
- Avoid prolonged inhalation of sawdust from untreated or treated wood.
- When the work is completed, wash areas of skin contacted thoroughly before eating or drinking.
- Clothing that accumulates sawdust should be laundered separately from other household clothing and before reuse.
- Dispose of treated wood in compliance with local ordinances. Do not burn treated wood.
Marine Environments are toughest on treated Southern Yellow Pine. Wood is one of the most economical and versatile construction materials used in the marine environment, and pressure-treated Southern Yellow Pine continues to be preferred for use in the long list of marine applications. Marine designers, contractors and engineers favor treated wood because it is readily available, easily repairable, and extremely durable. To assure long-lasting service in demanding marine environments, pressure treatment with preservatives is the most effective method of protecting wood.
For most marine construction, waterborne preservatives are preferred. These treatments are clean and odorless. Leading waterborne preservatives approved for outdoor applications in the market today include Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ), Copper Azole (CA) and Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA).
Recent Labeling Changes mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency have removed CCA as a preservative for lumber products intended for general consumer use. ACQ and CA are replacing CCA in the outdoor consumer market. Sold under a variety of trade names, ACQ and CA contain no arsenic and provide the same resistance to decay and termite attack.
CCA Treatment Still EPA Approved for Saltwater Use C18
While ACQ and CA are effective for ground contact and freshwater applications, CCA still has an important role to play in marine environments where wood is either immersed in saltwater (including brackish) or exposed to saltwater splash. The EPA continues to approve the use of CCA for marine construction, as specified in the American Wood Preserver’s Association Use Category Standard UC5 and Commodity Standard C18.
Marine specifiers will continue to select CCA-treated structural components exposed to saltwater, such as round piles, sawn timbers and heavy dimension lumber used for cross bracing. With the introduction of “environmentally friendly” ACQ and CA into the market, there are now alternatives to CCA for decking, railing and other components.
Stainless Steel information I may want to know
The information below is reprinted from the Stainless Steel Information Center
Specialty Steel Industry of North America http://www.ssina.com/faq/
1. What makes stainless steel stainless?
Answer: Stainless steel must contain at least 10.5 % chromium. It is this element that reacts with the oxygen in the air to form a complex chrome-oxide surface layer that is invisible but strong enough to prevent further oxygen from “staining” (rusting) the surface. Higher levels of chromium and the addition of other alloying elements such as nickel and molybdenum enhance this surface layer and improve the corrosion resistance of the stainless material. See the “Stainless Steel Primer” for more information.
2. What are the differences between 18/8 and 18/10 stainless steel?
Answer: The first number is the amount of chromium that is contained in the stainless, i.e., 18 is 18% chromium. The second number is the amount of nickel, i.e., 8 stands for 8% nickel. So 18/8 means that this stainless steel contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel. 18/10 is 18% chromium and 10% nickel. The higher the numbers the more corrosion resistant the material. 18/0 is a misleading designation. Both 18/8 and 18/10 contain nickel and are part of the grade family “300 series” stainless. 18/0 means that there is 18% chromium but zero nickel. When there is no nickel the stainless grade family is the “400 series”. 400 series are not as corrosion resistant as the 300 series and are magnetic, where the 300 series are non-magnetic.
3. Can stainless steel rust? Why? (I thought stainless did not rust!)
Answer: Stainless does not “rust” as you think of regular steel rusting with a red oxide on the surface that flakes off. If you see red rust it is probably due to some iron particles that have contaminated the surface of the stainless steel and it is these iron particles that are rusting. Look at the source of the rusting and see if you can remove it from the surface. If the iron is embedded in the surface, you can try a solution of 10% nitric and 2% hydrofluoric acid at room temperature or slightly heated. Wash area well with lots and lots of water after use. Commercially available “pickling paste” can also be used. See “The Care and Cleaning of Stainless Steel” for more information.
4. What is the difference between 304 and 316 stainless steel?
Answer: 304 contain 18% chromium and 8% nickel. 316 contain 16% chromium, 10% nickel and 2% molybdenum. The “moly” is added to help resist corrosion to chlorides (like sea water and de-icing salts) See “Stainless Steel for Coastal and Salt Corrosion Applications” for more information.
5. Is stainless steel magnetic?
Answer: There are several “types” of stainless steel. The 300 series (which contains nickel) is NOT magnetic. The 400 series (which just contains chromium and no nickel) ARE magnetic.
6. What is “passivation”?
Answer: When the amount of chromium (in an iron matrix) exceeds 10 ½%, a complex chrome oxide forms instantaneously that prevents the further diffusion of oxygen into the surface and results in the “passive” nature of stainless steel and its resistance to oxidation (or corrosion). A chemical “dip” into 10% nitric acid plus 2% hydrofluoric acid bath will enhance the development of this “passive” oxide.
The Specialty Steel Industry of North America (SSINA) and the individual companies it represents have made every effort to ensure that the information presented in this website is technically correct. However, neither the SSINA nor its member companies warrants the accuracy of the information contained in this website or its suitability for any general and specific use, and assumes no liability or responsibility of any kind in connection with the use of this information. The reader is advised that the material contained herein should not be used or relied on for any specific or general applications without first securing competent advice.